Assignments C, D, & E
- How does Freud’s “Model of Personality,” Piaget’s “Model of Cognitive Development,” Kohlberg’s “Model of Moral Development,” Gilligan’s “Gender Factor,” Mead’s “Model of the Social Self,” and Erikson’s “Model of the Eight Stages of Development” assist you in understanding how individuals become the complex social characters that make up our world?
Freud’s “Model of Personality” :
Freud’s Model of Personality is basically a combination of one's essential needs and the influence they experience by society. The three parts of this model exist within the “id,” “ego,” and “superego,” with the ego being ballance, id being a demand for instant satisfaction, and superego being cultural values and internalized norms. A well balanced member of society should want to have ego, and someone with either of its opposites would be considered childish or of pure conscience.
Piaget’s “Model of Cognitive Development” :
Piaget’s Model of Cognitive Development is based on how people think and understand. It can be defined by 4 stages: the Sensorimotor Stage, the Preoperational Stage, the Concrete Operational Stage, and the Formal Operational Stage. The Sensorimotor Stage is experienced at a young age when one’s experiences are only through their senses. The Preoperational Stage comes starting about at age two, and is experienced when one first uses symbols to communicate. The Concrete Operational Stage is the stage in which one can connect the things they see and understand why things are happening. Finally, the Formal Operational Stage is the one in which an individual can think for themselves, can grasp complex concepts, and can think critically.
Kohlberg’s “Model of Moral Development” :
Based on Piaget’s study, Kohlberg built his theory on moral development, and like Piaget’s, it occurs in stages. The first stage, preconventional, occurs in young childhood when one experiences the world in only pain or pleasure. Next is the conventional, which occurs in the teenage years. Similar to Piaget’s formal operational stage, teenagers learn to define right from wrong and conform to social norms. The final stage is the postconventional, which is experienced when one moves beyond the social norms to consider abstract principles.
Gilligan’s “Gender Factor” :
In Gillian’s Gender Factor, she studied the difference in the development of girls and boys and found that the two had different moral standards. Gillian states that boys have a justice perspective in which they rely on formal rules to define right from wrong. Girls, on the other hand, have a care and responsibility perspective in which they judge a situation with a biased eye toward relationships and loyalties.
Mead’s “Model of the Social Self” :
In Mead’s Model of the Social Self, he explores social behaviorism and how one’s experiences mold a person’s personality. Mead defined the “self” as the part of an individual’s personality that is composed of self-awareness and self image. He stated that the self is not born with us, but rather developed through social interaction and experience. In his model of the social self, Mead also stated that social experience is the exchange of symbols, that seeking meaning leads people to imagine other’s intentions, and that understanding intention requires imagining the situation from the other’s point of view.
Erikson’s “Model of the Eight Stages of Development” :
Finally, Erikson’s Model of the Eight Stages of Development look at a broad view of socialization. Stage one is infancy and is based on the challenge of trust and mistrust. Stage two is toddlerhood and is based on the challenge of developing shame and doubt. Stage three is preschool and is based around the challenges of initiative and guilt. Stage four is preadolescence and revolves around the troubles of industriousness and inferiority. Stage five is adolescence and is based on the challenge of gaining identity vs confusion. Stage six is young adulthood and revolves around intimacy and isolation. Stage seven is middle adulthood and is based on making a difference vs self absorption. Finally, stage eight is old age, which is about integrity and despair.
These ideas and theories help to develop understanding on how people develop complex social characters by proving a look into the minds of the societal subconscious. Seeing how people naturally and artificially develop from birth helps to show how they are shaped by society and their community, and all these ideas from different sociologists provide insight into the phenomenon at hand. These ideas explain how we become what we are, and ultimately, the way that society molds us into what is deemed either acceptable or unsatisfactory.
1. Based upon the information in the textbook, pages 133 and the reader, reading #15, create a short proposal for a powerpoint presentation which explains the concepts of the I and the Me, and how they operate to assist the development of the self.
-What is the self?
-The self is a part of George Herbert’ Mead’s Theory of the Social Self. It is the part of a person’s personality that is composed of self awareness and self image. Mead stated that the self is developed through social experience, and is not created with one at birth, but rather is developed.
-Unlike the body, it is not born, but rather forged through the process of social experience.
-Mead also states that seeking meaning leads people to imagine other people’s intentions, saying that that we draw conclusions by interpreting the underlying meaning behind someone's action.
-What are the I and the Me?
-The I and the Me are a part of the Theory of the Social Self. Mead states that by taking the role of the other, we become self aware. By this, he is saying that we (the self) have two parts.
-As the self, these two parts determine both who we are, and how we think others see us.
-The self has a character that is different from the physiological organism.
-The first part is called the I, this is the part that operates as the subject. The I is active and spontaneous.
-The second part is not conscious, but rather the way we think people see us. This side is objective, and instead of personality, it acts as our center for self image.
-One only becomes an object to himself by taking the attitudes of his social group to himself within the social environment.
-Mead stated that all social experiences we have throughout our lives are altered by both the I and the Me.
-Without the influence of others, one would simply be a body, and this body would know nothing other than itself.
-First, we innate an action with the I, this action is based on our personality, on the situation, who we are with, and our surroundings.
-Then, although physically the action is complete, it continues through the Me, which subconsciously determines responses based on how others respond to our actions.
1. Would a person who broke the law be seen as less deviant in our society than someone who walked down the street while naked? Why? What information in Chapter 9 can help you explain this.
Deviance varies according to the the preset cultural norms in any particular area. In our culture, it is normal (although not legal) for college age minors to consume alcohol, possess marijuana, and have sex. Although technically illegal, these acts are not considered deviant from common culture because it is accepted that it will happen. Walking down the street naked, on the other hand, is less common. Less people walk down the street naked because although it is not technically a crime, it can be seen as humiliating rather than something prideful. This is why you often hear people bragging about “getting totally stoned last night” or “nailing a hot chick” whereas coming to class naked is more often a recurring nightmare than a deviant act.
1. Distinguish between primary and secondary groups. Provide two examples of a primary and secondary group to which you have belonged.
A social group is a group of two or more people who identify with and interact with one another. It is human behavior to group together with like minded people, whether it be at school, home, church, business, neighborhoods, etc.. These people share experiences and interests, but, not every grouping of similar or like minded individuals come together. There can be groups of people with similarities such as the fact that they are all women, all homeowners, all students, all soldiers, and so on, but they never all meet. These people with similarities that but interact with one another are called secondary groups. The secondary group is a large and impersonal social group whose members all are alike in one key feature. On the other side of the spectrum, the people whose key feature bring them together are called primary groups. A primary group is a small social group whose member share personal relationships with one another. Groups of friends, families, etc. who who all display a personal orientation can be considered primary groups.
Two primary groups I belong to are my family and my close friends. My father, stepmother, little sister, and I all live together and we share close knit and close proximity relationships. I also have an intimate group of friends who share common interests, hobbies, and views as me. Two secondary groups I belong to are that I am a student and I am a female. I, among most people my age, attend high school five days a week. I also, much like other people all over the world who identify as female, am a female.
1. Identify three of your ascribed statuses and three of your achieve statuses.
Three of my ascribed statuses are a teenager, a sister, and a daughter. Three of my achieved statuses are honor student, volleyball player, and artist.
2. Identity two roles for each status.
Teenager- mentor, advocate
Sister- caregiver, protector
Daughter- helper, heir
Honor student- peer, role model
Volleyball Player- team member, athlete
Artist- entertainer, creator
3. Discuss how those statuses and roles interact to create your position in the stratification of society that we call socio-economic class.
My roles come together to make me a well rounded citizen that works to help my community. My roles as a sister and an honor student interact to make me a role model to people younger than me who look up to me, and my roles as a volleyball player and an artist interact make me an entertainer.
4. What are two strategies you might take to change your social class position?
One strategy I might take if I wanted to raise my social class position would be to marry a rich man and marry into a higher social class. On the opposite end of the spectrum, if I wanted to lower my social class position, I would spend my money on useless things until inevitable bankruptcy.